A Systematic Review of Resting-State Functional-MRI Studies in Major Depression, by Wang et al.
Resting-state research has also gained momentum in the field of depression neuroimaging. A 2012 review of sixteen resting-state fMRI studies published between 2005 and 2011 described various default mode network “abnormalities” in major depression (Wang et al. 2012; see also Veer et al. 2010, not included in the review, as well as the meta-analysis by Alcaro et al. 2010).
What is supposed to be their role? The most ambitious restingstate model of major depressive disorder (Northoff et al. 2011) does not aim at “denosologizing” the category. Rather, it preserves major depressive disorder (MDD) in all its heterogeneity—at the level of its symptoms, the affects it encompasses (anxiety, sadness, grief, panic, pain), the bodily systems it involves (from the vegetative and endocrine to the cognitive), the neuroanatomical regions observed to be “abnormal” in the condition, and the biochemistry pertaining to each of those systems and regions.
MDD turns out in this model to be characterized by a subcortical-cortical imbalance, with resting-state hyperactivity in some regions and hypoactivity in others.
To evaluate the literature pertaining to the use of resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in Major Depression (MD).
A search for papers published in English was conducted using MedLine, Embase, PsycINFO, OvidSP, and ScienceDirect with the following words: resting state, depression, MRI, affective, and default-mode.
The findings from 16 resting-state fMRI studies on MD are tabulated. Some common findings are discussed in further detail.
The use of resting-state fMRI in MD research has yielded a number of significant findings that provide the basis for understanding the pathophysiology of depressive symptoms. Of particular note and deserving of further research are the roles of the cortico-limbic mood regulating circuit (MRC) and the interaction between task-positive and task-negative networks in MD. There is increasing interest in the use of resting-state fMRI in the study of psychiatric conditions, and continued improvement in technique and methodology will prove valuable in future research.
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If you'd like to read the other articles mentioned by Vidal and Ortega, here they are:Veer, Ilya M., Christian F. Beckmann, Marie-José van Tol, et al. 2010. “Whole Brain Resting-State An...