Skip to content

Galenic Corpus

01/01/129 (Aprox)01/01/200 (Aprox)


In Galenism, four bodily humors (blood, yellow bile, black bile, and phlegm) were made up of mixtures of the four elements (air, fire, earth, water) and shared in their basic qualities (warm and humid, warm and dry, cold and dry, cold and humid). The 'temperaments,' or proportions and mixtures of the humors, dictated individual temperaments, in the sense of 'characters' (respectively the sanguine, choleric, melancholic, and phlegmatic). 


Physiology thus elucidated someone’s personality and aptitudes as well as soul-body interactions in general. According to Galen, as the blood passed through various organs, it was transformed into increasingly subtle and thin fluids, or 'spirits.' It first became a 'natural spirit,' responsible for nutrition and growth. After combining with air in the lungs, it passed into the heart, where a portion was transformed into the 'vital spirit' on which motor and life-sustaining functions depended. The final refinement took place in the cerebral ventricles, with the formation of the 'animal spirits,' thus called because they sustained the sensitive and intellectual functions of the anima or soul. The qualities of these spirits, such as their temperature, humidity, or density, depended on those of the humors and determined in turn those of the mind. If a person’s blood was too cold, the animal spirits would also be cold, and the mental acts that relied on them would lack 'heat'” and be correspondingly weak and slow. Thus, it was not the brain and nerves but the humors via the animal spirits that held body and soul firmly together."

One of the treatises published by Galen on this subject is explicitly named Quod Animi Mores Corporis Temperatura Sequantur, or That the Traits of the Soul Follow the Temperaments of the Body, in English. 

Vidal, Fernando and Ortega, Francisco. Being Brains: Making the Cerebral Subject (Forms of Living)....

"[...] Soul was therefore responsible for the basic functions, faculties, or powers of living beings, known as nutritive or vegetative, perceptive or sensible, appetitive or desiderative, motor or locomotive, and rational or intellective (Michael 2000). Sometimes these faculties were attributed to different souls, and their possession defined a hierarchy: Human beings had all of them, nonhuman animals lacked a rational soul, and plants had only a vegetative soul. Yet all were “animals,” or ensouled bodies. That is why the word psychology, in use by 1590, originally designated the science of all living beings (Vidal 2011)".

Galen, a second-century Greek physician and philosopher, rose from gladiators’ physician in Asia Min...

See "The World, the Flesh, and the Devil" at Google books

John Locke was an English philosopher whose works lie at the foundation of modern philosophical empi...

Obtained from galen.com

Learn more about John Locke at "britannica.com"

Learn more about Galen in Owsei Temkin's article, cited by Vidal and Ortega. You can purchase the article at the link below:

https://psychclassics.yorku.ca/Aristotle/De-anima/de-anima1.htm

Cyber Museum of Neurosurgery

Temkin, Owsei. 1973. Galenism: Rise and Decline of a Medical Philosophy. Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell Unive...

.You can download the full text Ebook of '"Passions of The Soul" at the link below. Obtained from: thevirtuallibrary.org

Locke, John. 1690. “Second Treatise of Government.” In Two Treatises of Government, edited by Peter...

You can also read this article by J. Trevor Hughes, published at Nature in 1988:

nullnull

0 comments

Comment
No comments avaliable.

Author

Info

Published in 19/10/2018

Updated in 19/02/2021

All events in the topic Chap. 1: Genealogy of the Cerebral Subject:


17/06/2013Beyond the Brain, by David BrooksBeyond the Brain, by David Brooks
30/06/1963Self-Knowledge and Self-Identity, by Sidney ShoemakerSelf-Knowledge and Self-Identity, by Sidney Shoemaker
31/12/1981 (Aprox)Reason, Truth, and History, by Hilary PutnamReason, Truth, and History, by Hilary Putnam
01/04/1981The Mind’s I, edited by Daniel C. Dennett and Douglas HofstadterThe Mind’s I, edited by Daniel C. Dennett and Douglas Hofstadter
01/01/1981 (Aprox)Philosophical Explanations, by Robert NozickPhilosophical Explanations, by Robert Nozick
01/01/129 (Aprox)01/01/200 (Aprox)Galenic CorpusGalenic Corpus
06/05/2015The Embodied Brain, by Kiverstein and MillerThe Embodied Brain, by Kiverstein and Miller
01/05/1993Exploding the Gene Myth, by Ruth Rubbard and Elijah WaldExploding the Gene Myth, by Ruth Rubbard and Elijah Wald
01/01/2005 (Aprox)The Ethical Brain, by GazzanigaThe Ethical Brain, by Gazzaniga
01/09/2007Can neuroscience be integrated into the DSM-V?, by Steven HymanCan neuroscience be integrated into the DSM-V?, by Steven Hyman
20/03/1989Quote by James D. WatsonQuote by James D. Watson
20/10/2004Completion of the Human Genome ProjectCompletion of the Human Genome Project
01/01/2003 (Aprox)Neurochemical Selves, by Nikolas RoseNeurochemical Selves, by Nikolas Rose
20/02/2009Identity, Identification, and the Brain, by Emily MartinIdentity, Identification, and the Brain, by Emily Martin
21/09/2015Thomas Insel appointed head of the new life sciences unit of AlphabetThomas Insel appointed head of the new life sciences unit of Alphabet
01/01/1960 (Aprox)31/12/1969 (Aprox)Widespread of the definition of death according to brain-based criteria in clinical practiceWidespread of the definition of death according to brain-based criteria in clinical practice
16/10/1997Japan's Organ Transplantation LawJapan's Organ Transplantation Law
23/10/2000Brain Death and Transplantation in Japan, by Masahiro MoriokaBrain Death and Transplantation in Japan, by Masahiro Morioka
01/01/2002 (Aprox)Twice Dead: Organ Transplants and the Reinvention of Death,  by Margaret LockTwice Dead: Organ Transplants and the Reinvention of Death, by Margaret Lock
06/06/1995The DNA Mystique, by Dorothy Nelkin and Susan LindeeThe DNA Mystique, by Dorothy Nelkin and Susan Lindee
19/06/2013The Problem with the Neuroscience Backlash, by Gary MarcusThe Problem with the Neuroscience Backlash, by Gary Marcus
18/06/2013David Brooks and the Anti-Neuroscience Backlash, by Paul WaldmanDavid Brooks and the Anti-Neuroscience Backlash, by Paul Waldman
03/01/1988Technologies of the Self, by Michel FoucaultTechnologies of the Self, by Michel Foucault
01/01/1993 (Aprox)Le philosophe et son scalpel: le problème de l'identité personnelle, by Stéphane FerretLe philosophe et son scalpel: le problème de l'identité personnelle, by Stéphane Ferret
15/12/1983Beyond Structuralism and Hermeneutics, by FoucaultBeyond Structuralism and Hermeneutics, by Foucault
01/01/1988 (Aprox)Real People: Personal Identity Without Thought Experiments, by Kathleen WilkesReal People: Personal Identity Without Thought Experiments, by Kathleen Wilkes
21/06/2003Is It Me or My Brain? Depression and Neuroscientific Facts, by Joseph DumitIs It Me or My Brain? Depression and Neuroscientific Facts, by Joseph Dumit
01/01/1969 (Aprox)Brain Transplantation and Personal Identity, by Roland PuccettiBrain Transplantation and Personal Identity, by Roland Puccetti
22/04/1999The Genetic Self, by June PetersThe Genetic Self, by June Peters
05/08/1968Harvard Medical School landmark reportHarvard Medical School landmark report
01/01/1929 (Aprox)The World, the Flesh, and the Devil, by J.D. BernalThe World, the Flesh, and the Devil, by J.D. Bernal
01/01/1690 (Aprox)The Second Treatise of Government, by John LockeThe Second Treatise of Government, by John Locke
01/01/1701 BCE (Aprox)Edwin Smith surgical papyrusEdwin Smith surgical papyrus
01/01/1621 (Aprox)Anatomy of Melancholy, by Robert BurtonAnatomy of Melancholy, by Robert Burton
01/01/1649 (Aprox)Passions of the Soul, by René DescartesPassions of the Soul, by René Descartes
01/01/351 BCE (Aprox)De Anima, by AristotleDe Anima, by Aristotle
01/01/120101/01/1599AristotelianismAristotelianism
01/01/401 BCE (Aprox)On the Sacred Disease, by HippocratesOn the Sacred Disease, by Hippocrates
01/01/1575 (Aprox)The Tryal of Wits, by Juan HuarteThe Tryal of Wits, by Juan Huarte
01/01/1664 (Aprox)The Anatomy of the Brain and Nerves, by Thomas WillisThe Anatomy of the Brain and Nerves, by Thomas Willis
01/01/1661 (Aprox)01/01/1699 (Aprox)CorpuscularianismCorpuscularianism
01/01/1694 (Aprox)Essay Concerning Human Understanding, by John LockeEssay Concerning Human Understanding, by John Locke
01/01/1760 (Aprox)Analytical Essay on the Faculties of the Soul, by Charles Bonnet
01/01/1907 (Aprox)Quote by Auguste Forel
01/01/1912 (Aprox)Quote by Oskar Vogt
01/01/1796 (Aprox)01/01/1840 (Aprox)PhrenologyPhrenology
01/01/1861 (Aprox)The case of Tan, studied by Paul BrocaThe case of Tan, studied by Paul Broca
18/04/1955Albert Einstein's deathAlbert Einstein's death
01/01/1950 (Aprox)Cybernetics
01/01/1924 (Aprox)First human electroencephalogram (EEG) recordedFirst human electroencephalogram (EEG) recorded
01/01/1990 (Aprox)Neuroplasticity
01/01/2003 (Aprox)Jonathon Keats copyrights his brain
01/01/1844 (Aprox)The Duality of the Mind, by Arthur Wigan
01/01/1874 (Aprox)The Brain Power of Man: Has He Two Brains or Has He One?, by Brown-Séquard
01/01/1900 (Aprox)New Methods in Education, by James Liberty Tadd
01/01/1903 (Aprox)Foundation of the British Ambidextral Culture Society
27/12/2006Article on Brain Calisthenics, at The New York TimesArticle on Brain Calisthenics, at The New York Times
01/01/1828 (Aprox)The Constitution of Man Considered in Relation to External Objects, by George CombeThe Constitution of Man Considered in Relation to External Objects, by George Combe
01/01/1887 (Aprox)First Book in Physiology and Hygiene, by John Harvey KelloggFirst Book in Physiology and Hygiene, by John Harvey Kellogg
01/01/1859 (Aprox)Self-Help, by Samuel SmilesSelf-Help, by Samuel Smiles
01/01/1869 (Aprox)01/01/1885 (Aprox)The New Thought or Mind Cure Movement
01/01/2002 (Aprox)Foundation of the Posit Science Corporation
01/01/1960 (Aprox)Right-brain boom
01/03/1992Smart for Life, by Michael D. Chafetz
15/01/2001The Executive Brain, by Elkhonon GoldbergThe Executive Brain, by Elkhonon Goldberg