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2001 11 September

11/09/2001

The September 11 attacks (also referred to as 9/11) were a series of four coordinated terrorist attacks by the Islamic terrorist group al-Qaeda against the United States on the morning of Tuesday, September 11, 2001. The attacks killed 2,996 people, injured over 6,000 others, and caused at least $10 billion in infrastructure and property damage. Additional people died of 9/11-related cancer and respiratory diseases in the months and years following the attacks.

Four passenger airliners operated by two major U.S. passenger air carriers (United Airlines and American Airlines)—all of which departed from airports in the northeastern United States bound for California—were hijacked by 19 al-Qaeda terrorists. Two of the planes, American Airlines Flight 11 and United Airlines Flight 175, were crashed into the North and South towers, respectively, of the World Trade Center complex in Lower Manhattan. Within an hour and 42 minutes, both 110-story towers collapsed. Debris and the resulting fires caused a partial or complete collapse of all other buildings in the World Trade Center complex, including the 47-story 7 World Trade Center tower, as well as significant damage to ten other large surrounding structures. A third plane, American Airlines Flight 77, was crashed into the Pentagon (the headquarters of the U.S. Department of Defense) in Arlington County, Virginia, which led to a partial collapse of the building's west side. The fourth plane, United Airlines Flight 93, was initially flown toward Washington, D.C., but crashed into a field in Stonycreek Township near Shanksville, Pennsylvania, after its passengers thwarted the hijackers. 9/11 is the single deadliest terrorist attack in human history and the single deadliest incident for firefighters and law enforcement officers[7] in the history of the United States, with 343 and 72 killed, respectively.

Suspicion quickly fell on al-Qaeda. The United States responded by launching the War on Terror and invaded Afghanistan to depose the Taliban, which had failed to comply with U.S. demands to extradite Osama bin Laden and expel al-Qaeda from Afghanistan. Many countries strengthened their anti-terrorism legislation and expanded the powers of law enforcement and intelligence agencies to prevent terrorist attacks. Although Osama bin Laden, al-Qaeda's leader, initially denied any involvement, in 2004 he claimed responsibility for the attacks. Al-Qaeda and bin Laden cited U.S. support of Israel, the presence of U.S. troops in Saudi Arabia, and sanctions against Iraq as motives. After evading capture for almost a decade, bin Laden was located in Pakistan and killed by SEAL Team Six of the U.S. Navy in May 2011.

The destruction of the World Trade Center and nearby infrastructure seriously harmed the economy of Lower Manhattan and had a significant effect on global markets, which resulted in the closing of Wall Street until September 17 and the civilian airspace in the U.S. and Canada until September 13. Many closings, evacuations, and cancellations followed, out of respect or fear of further attacks. Cleanup of the World Trade Center site was completed in May 2002, and the Pentagon was repaired within a year. On November 18, 2006, construction of One World Trade Center began at the World Trade Center site. The building was officially opened on November 3, 2014. Numerous memorials have been constructed, including the National September 11 Memorial & Museum in New York City, the Pentagon Memorial in Arlington County, Virginia, and the Flight 93 National Memorial in a field in Stonycreek Township near Shanksville, Pennsylvania.

Although not confirmed, there is evidence of alleged Saudi Arabian involvement in the attacks. Given as main evidence in these charges are the contents of the 28 redacted pages of the December 2002 Joint Inquiry into Intelligence Community Activities before and after the Terrorist Attacks of September 11, 2001 conducted by the Senate Select Committee on Intelligence and the House Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence. These 28 pages contain information regarding the material and financial assistance given to the hijackers and their affiliates leading up to the attacks by the Saudi Arabian government.

Part of terrorism in the United States
Part of terrorism in the United States

The September 11 attacks (also referred to as 9/11) were a series of four coordinated terrorist attacks by the Islamic terrorist group al-Qaeda against the United States on the morning of Tuesday, September 11, 2001. The attacks killed 2,996 people, injured over 6,000 others, and caused at least $10 billion in infrastructure and property damage. Additional people died of 9/11-related cancer and respiratory diseases in the months and years following the attacks.

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Published in 3/04/2019

Updated in 19/02/2021

All events in the topic International Chronology:


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01/01/1593Shakespeare writes Richard IIIShakespeare writes Richard III
01/01/1610Galileo invents the telescopeGalileo invents the telescope
01/03/1661Start of the reign of Louis XIVStart of the reign of Louis XIV
01/01/1687Denis Papin constructs the first steam engineDenis Papin constructs the first steam engine
17/05/175615/02/1763Seven Years’ WarSeven Years’ War
05/05/1789Outbreak of the French RevolutionOutbreak of the French Revolution
21/10/1805Battles of Trafalgar and AusterlitzBattles of Trafalgar and Austerlitz
21/02/1821Greece achieves independenceGreece achieves independence
20/06/1837Victoria is crowned Queen of EnglandVictoria is crowned Queen of England
24/11/1859Darwin - On the Origin of SpeciesDarwin - On the Origin of Species
01/12/1865Abolition of slavery in the USAAbolition of slavery in the USA
01/01/1884Construction of the first skyscraper in ChicagoConstruction of the first skyscraper in Chicago
01/01/1905Einstein - Theory of RelativityEinstein - Theory of Relativity
28/07/191411/11/1918First World WarFirst World War
01/01/1929Black Thursday on Wall StreetBlack Thursday on Wall Street
17/07/1936Start of the Spanish Civil WarStart of the Spanish Civil War
01/09/193902/09/1945Second World WarSecond World War
25/03/1957Signing of the Treaty of Rome - creation of the EECSigning of the Treaty of Rome - creation of the EEC
08/03/1965The USA intervenes in VietnamThe USA intervenes in Vietnam
09/11/1989Fall of the Berlin WallFall of the Berlin Wall
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14/09/1822Champollion deciphers hieroglyphicsChampollion deciphers hieroglyphics
01/07/1844Alexandre Dumas publishes The Three MusketeersAlexandre Dumas publishes The Three Musketeers
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26/07/1882Wagner writes ParsifalWagner writes Parsifal
01/01/1885Karl Benz invents the first petrol-powered vehicleKarl Benz invents the first petrol-powered vehicle
13/02/1895Lumiére Brothers – 1st cinema projectionLumiére Brothers – 1st cinema projection
01/01/1899Bayer invents aspirinBayer invents aspirin
01/01/1912Proclamation of the Republic of ChinaProclamation of the Republic of China
14/04/1912Sinking of the TitanicSinking of the Titanic
08/03/1917Russian RevolutionRussian Revolution
01/01/1920Women granted the right to vote in the USAWomen granted the right to vote in the USA
01/01/1921Hitler becomes the leader of the Nazi PartyHitler becomes the leader of the Nazi Party
01/01/1923First broadcasting of images by televisionFirst broadcasting of images by television
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01/10/1927The start of sound filmThe start of sound film
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01/08/1934Hitler becomes leader of German ReichHitler becomes leader of German Reich
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